Please visit Boiler Tube Research (Super-Heater) Part 3 for previous explanation.

XRD analysis conclusions may be drawn as follows:
1. There are many a crust or safety deposit attached to the outer wall of a pipe at the side of which do not undergo to erosion.
2. A kind of a compound found on crust could have come from some fly ash.

Mechanic and Thermal Analysis.
From internal condition of pipe operational can be seen high burden work experienced by those pipes both in thermal and pressure from internal side of pipe. The outer side of pipe also get heat from flue gas derived from furnace.

In addition to internal and external pipe there that other instrument which pipe work on this namely soot blower. Placement soot blower is on either side that dealt and work alternately per each side, where both sides named side A and B (side see picture 2.14).

Soot blower side A and B side of the information, having long range unequal. So if run simultaneously likely to conflict, because one side overlapping against the other side. This effect risk deflection soot blower due to hot temperature high on regional operation also different. It is risky because could cause process cleaning is not work well.


Please visit Boiler Tube Research (Super-Heater) Part 2 for previous explanation.

Observation of the micro-structure is required for viewing the phase change or is there a change of micro-structure that occur during pipeline use and also to prove that a broken pipe caused by erosion only. Samples taken from pipes that are experiencing thinning of the outer walls and the surface shape of a wave (Figure 2.7). Photos of specimens and the resulting micro-structure can be seen in Figure 2.8 up to 2.11.

The hardness test results on free damage area and the damaged area can be seen on Table 2.6.

From the results of analysis of micro-structure and test photos of hardness test in an area that experienced depletion can be concluded that:
1. Damage occurs not because of the influence of thermal deformation of plastic or, since there is no change in the micro-structure occurs significantly.
2. test results of violence in an area that is experiencing thinning a bit down.
3. macro photos Of looks that the thinning of the walls of tubes happens because the process of erosion.

XRD Analysis Of Deposits Of The Outside Pipe.
On the internal pipe not find any excessive deposit and an indication of damage due to corrosion (pitting corrosion, caustic corrosion and others) as shown 2.7 but in the external pipe found many crust or deposit sticking in sufficiently thick and strong on pipe (picture.2.12). XRD analysis of the deposits can be seen from picture 2.13 and table 2.7.

The summary of XRD analysis can be seen in Boiler Tube Research Part 4.


Previous explanation can be read on Boiler Tube Research (Super-Heater) Part 1.

Pipeline number 2 the condition can be seen in Figure 2.2. Visual inspection is performed to detect the location of damage to the pipe. The result can be seen in Figure 2.3 to 2.6.

From the visual inspection, conclusions may be drawn as follows:
1.Found the depletion of the outer wall pipe likely caused by erosion.
2.Found any moderately thick crust is strong enough and adhere to the outside of a pipe not subjected to erosion.
3.Did not find any excessive safety deposit on the inside of the pipe.
4.Not invent the ravages of corrosion, on the inside of pipes as, pitting corrosion, caustic corrosion or other kind of corrosion which seriously make damage .
5.Not found the depletion part of wall pipe in damage and no proof pipe beginning from the pipe

To test the truth of the conclusion on the results of the visual inspection, can be conducted a series of Metallurgy tests.

Chemical composition and Hardness test.
This test aims to prove that there is no mistake in choosing the material the pipe is used. Specification of the material used for secondary super-heater pipe classified as SA-213-T12. Results of testing the chemical composition and the violence will be compared with the standard ASTM A213.

Results of testing chemical composition and hardness test with the standard specifications can be seen in Tables 2.4 and 2.5.

Conclusion can be drawn from the testing material pipe is material a pipe used according to the specifications as specified.

Continue to Metal Micro-structure analysis and Hardness test on Boiler Tube Research Part 3 (Super-Heater).